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How does ARP work ??

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How does ARP work ??
posted Dec 11, 2013 by anonymous

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1 Answer

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**Working of Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)**

Step 1: When a source device want to communicate with another device, source device checks its Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache to find it already has a resolved MAC Address of the destination device. If it is there, it will use that MAC Address for communication. To view your Local Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache, Open Command Prompt and type command "arp -a" (Without double quotes using Windows Operating Systems).

Step 2: If ARP resolution is not there in local cache, the source machine will generate an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) request message, it puts its own data link layer address as the Sender Hardware Address and its own IPv4 Address as the Sender Protocol Address. It fills the destination IPv4 Address as the Target Protocol Address. The Target Hardware Address will be left blank, since the machine is trying to find that.

Step 3: The source broadcast the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) request message to the local network.

Step 4: The message is received by each device on the LAN since it is a broadcast. Each device compare the Target Protocol Address (IPv4 Address of the machine to which the source is trying to communicate) with its own Protocol Address (IPv4 Address). Those who do not match will drop the packet without any action.

Step 5: When the targeted device checks the Target Protocol Address, it will find a match and will generate an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) reply message. It takes the Sender Hardware Address and the Sender Protocol Address fields from the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) request message and uses these values for the Targeted Hardware Address and Targeted Protocol Address of the reply message.

answer Dec 21, 2013 by Vikas Upadhyay
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Lets assume device is a computer which is connected to LAN switch and LAN switch has further links in upward.
Does a computer initiate ARP request for each destination IP ? Or it initiates ARP request only for a specific group of IPs ?

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