A typical DNS lookup is used to determine which IP address is associated with a hostname, and this is called Forward DNS lookup. A reverse DNS lookup is used for the opposite, to determine which hostname is associated with an IP address. Sometimes reverse DNS lookups are required for diagnostic purposes. Today, reverse DNS lookups are used mainly for security purposes to trace a hacker or spammer. Many modern mailing systems use reverse mapping to provide simple authentication using dual lookup: hostname-to-address and address-to-hostname. The rDNS ( reverse DNS ) is implemented using a specialized zone record for reverse lookups called PTR record. PTR records always resolve to names, never IP addresses.