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Did you know that these 12 were invented in India?

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Indian inventions and discoveries have been instrumental in shaping the face of the current modern world. In fact, the origins of many of the modern products can be traced back to ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Here we list down the eight things that you might not know were invented in India.

 

1. Snakes and Ladders

The game, Snakes & Ladders,  was invented in India as a game of morals. Later it spread to England and eventually introduced in the USA by game pioneer Milton Bradley in 1943.

2. Shampoo

The word ‘Shampoo’ is derived from chāmpo (चाँपो). It was initially used as a head massage oil for the Nawabs of Bengal during the Mughal Empire around 1762. It evolved into shampoo over the years.

3. Fibonacci Numbers

The Fibonacci numbers were first described by Virahanka, Gopala  and Hemachandra as an outgrowth of earlier writings by Pingala.

4. Water on Moon

ISRO’s Chandrayaan-1 made the startling discovery that our moon is not a dry ball of rocks. The discovery of lunar water is attributed to the Chandrayaan mission.

5. Binary Code

 

Binary numbers were first described by Pingala (c. 200 BC). Pingala is the traditional name of the author of the Chandaḥśāstra, the earliest known Sanskrit treatise on prosody.

6. Buttons

The origins of buttons can be traced back to the ancient Indian Valley Civilization. Back then, they were used for ornamental purpose.

7. Chess

Chess, the strategy board game was an Indian invention. It was invented during the Gupta dynasty in the 6th century.

8. Cotton Spinning

The credit of clothing the world, goes to India. Evidences of cotton spinning by the Indus Valley Civilization were found by the historians.

9. Diamond Mining

Worldwide, India was the only source of diamonds until the discovery of mines in Brazil in the 18th century. Almost 5000 years ago, diamonds were first recognized and mined in central India.

10. Flush Toilets

Flush toilets were first used in the Indus Valley Civilization. These existed in most homes and were connected to a sophisticated sewage mechanism. The civilization was prominent in hydraulic engineering.

11. Ruler

Rulers made of ivory were found by the historians during the study of Indus Valley Civilization. This proves that rulers were used by the people of ancient India

12. Zero

This one you probably knew. Aryabhatta of ancient India is to be credited for inventing zero. Although there was no exclusive symbol dedicated to this number, the presence of zero was very visible in his work.

posted Apr 18, 2016 by Jay Yadav

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The nine coastal Indian states Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal are home to all major and minor ports of India. The long coastline of India frames one of the greatest real estate parcel into a group of water,These twelve noteworthy Indian Ports are handle a substantial volume of payload movement and holder activity. There are add up to 13 major sea ports of India, out of 12 are government and one, Ennore port of Chennai is the corporate one.

Let's take a look at top 10 Sea Ports of India that you may not know:

1. Kandla Port – Gujarat

The Kandla port is situated 90 kms from the Gulf of Kutch, Gujarat in a place called the Kandla creek. It was constructed in the 1950′s after the India Pakistan partition at the loss of Port of Karachi. It is the largest port in India according to how much of cargo is handled. Kandla port is the first Export processing port in India. The major imports that enter Kandla port are: Petroleum, Steel and iron machinery, chemicals and also salt, textiles and grains. Today, the Kandla port is one of the highest profit earning port of India and the center for exporting grains and importing oil.

2. Visakhapatnam Port –  Andhra Pradesh

This port is one of the largest ports in India also called Vizag port. It is equipped with eastern naval command in the Indian navy. Visakhapatnam port is the busy port with major commercial transportation. The port located in the southeast coast of India. Visakhapatnam port consists of natural water basins holding 150,000 DWT vessels. The port is a major part of the Vizag, which is the second largest city in Andhra. You visit the beautiful port and the oldest shipyard of country in one of your holidays.

3. Chennai Port – Tamil Nadu

Chennai port also called Madras Port is the one of the oldest port of India and the second largest port in the country. Chennai Port also the largest port in the Bay of Bengal and a hub port for cars, big containers and cargo traffic in the east coast of India. Port of the Coromandel Coast handles a variety of cargo containers,automobiles,coal,fertilizers and petroleum products. Chennai Port terminals have lighthouses around,Intra port connectivity,Pipelines and railway terminus.

4. Jawaharlal Nehru Port – Maharashtra

The Nhava Sheva which is another name for the Jawaharlal Nehru Port is the largest container port in the whole of India. It is situated in the east of Mumbai, Maharashtra. The name Nhava Sheva is derived from the names of two villages that used to exist in that area. Constructed on May 26, 1989, the Jawaharlal Nehru port is completely controlled by the Indian Government. This port handles 56% of the total containers and is one of the top 30 ports in India. The chairman of the Jawaharlal Nehru port is Shri Anil Diggikar. The Jawaharlal Nehru port was awarded the “Port of the year” at the MALA awards, 2014. The major exports from Jawaharlal Nehru Port are textiles, sporting goods, carpets, textile machinery, boneless meat, chemicals pharmaceuticals and imports are chemicals, machinery, plastics, electrical machinery, vegetable oils and aluminium and other non-ferrous metals.

5. Mormugao Port – Goa

The main port of Goa,Mormugao port is a best natural harbors of India located in South Goa. Mormugao port is one of the leading iron ores exporter port in India and raw materials too.The port of Mormugao is one of the major attraction of Goa along with the beautiful city of Vasco da Gama and international airport Dabolim. The natural harbor of Goa is one of India’s earliest modern ports.

6. Port Blair Port – Andaman

Port Blair port  is the newly added port and is considered as the major port located in the capital city of Andaman & Nicobar islands. It is the youngest sea port in India. The port connected to the main land of India through ship and flight. You can enjoy your holidays here with engaging in activities like swimming in virgin beaches, scuba diving, water sports etc. This port is situated in between two international shipping lines namely Saudi Arabia & US Singapore.

7. Mumbai Port – Maharashtra

Located on the mainland of West mumbai is the Mumbai port. It is the largest port in India. It is a natural harbour and is 10-12 metre deep. It handles around one-fifth of India’s foreign trade. The Mumbai port is one of the busiest port in India. It plays a very important role in enhancing India’s economy and trade affairs. The Mumbai harbour is also known as “Front Bay”, meaning gateway of India. The port mainly specializes in import of petroleum products, liquid chemicals and mineral oil and imports consist of cotton textiles, leather, tobacco, manganese, machinery, chemical goods.

8. Kolkata Port – West Bengal

Kolkata port is the only riverine port located in Kolkata with two dock systems namely Kokata docks & Haldia dock complex. Kokata dock is located on the banks of Hoogly river and it provides features like cargo facilities, heavy lifts etc. Kolkata port is considered as one of the largest dry dock in India. This oldest operating port made by the British east India company. It was exposed to bombing during the second world war by the japan. The port and near by places are interesting to see.

9. Paradip Port –  Orissa

The artificial, deep-water port of east coast of India is located in the Jagatsinghpur district of Orissa state. Port of Paradip is the major port in the east cost shore and situated at the confluence of great river Mahanadi and the Bay of Bengal. Paradip Port has its own railway system,cold handling plant and a national highway connects the port with rest of Indian road networks.

10. Cochin Port – Kerala

The major port on the Arabian Sea, the Cochin port is one of the largest port in India and also the fastest growing one situated in Kerala. The Cochin port lies in between two islands namely Willingdon and Vallarpadam. Its export mainly consists of tea,coffee and spices while its exports consists of mineral oil and chemical fertilizers. It is also a centre for shipbuilding. In this port the imports always exceeds the exports. In 2003, its imports were 10,839 thousand tonnes while its imports were only 2,110 thousand tonnes.

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The Union Budget of India is considered as the annual budget of the Republic India. According to Article 112 of the Constitution of India, it is referred as the Annual Financial Statement. The Budget is presented by the Finance Minister every year and the bill has to be passed by both the Houses of the Parliament before it comes into effect. Interim Budget is known as a short budget which usually presented prior to general elections by the ruling government.

1. R.K Shanmukham Chetty presented the First Union Budget of Independent India on November 26th, 1947.

2. Generally, the Union Budget of India is presented on the last working day of February.

3. Moraji Desai is the only Finance Minister to present the Union Budget on his Birthday.Desai did it in two different years (1964 & 1968). Interestingly, his birthday was on 29th February.

Moraji Desai presented the Union Budget 10 times, most by any Finance Minister of India.

4. The printing of the Union Budget of India starts with Halwa Ceremony.

5. Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister to present the budget in the Parliament.

6. Indira Gandhi is still the only lady to hold the post of the Finance Minister.

7. Indira Gandhi is also the only woman and second Prime Minister to present the Union Budget for 1969-70.

8. Rajiv Gandhi became the third Prime Minister to present the Union Budget after Nehru (his grandfather) and Indira Gandhi (his mother).

9. Pranab Mukherjee was the first Rajya Sabha member to present the Union Budget.

10. Until 1999, Union Budget was announced at 5 pm in the evening. However, in 2001 Yashwanth Sinha then Finance Minister of NDA govt. led by Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee changed it to 11 am.

 

 

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