This all terms are related with the process.
So, What is process?
--> Whenever executable file is loaded into RAM is called a process.
Throughput :- Number of process completed per unit time. More is good.
Turn around time :- Duration between process starts and process completes. Less is good.
Waiting time :- Total time that has been spent by a process in waiting state. Less is good.
Response time :- Duration between the executable file loaded into RAM and 1st instruction to be executed.