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Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and It's working Process..

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Where two bridges are used to interconnect the same two computer network segments, spanning tree is a protocol that allows the bridges to exchange information so that only one of them will handle a given message that is being sent between two computers within the network. The spanning tree protocol prevents the condition known as a bridge loop.

n a local area network (LAN) such as an Ethernet or token ring network, computers compete for the ability to use the shared telecommunications path at any given time. If too many computers try to send at the same time, the overall performance of the network can be affected, even to the point of bringing all traffic to a near halt. To make this possibility less likely, the local area network can be divided into two or more network segments with a device called a bridge connecting any two segments. Each message (called a frame) goes through the bridge before being sent to the intended destination. The bridge determines whether the message is for a destination within the same segment as the sender's or for the other segment, and forwards it accordingly. A bridge does nothing more than look at the destination address and, based on its understanding of the two segments (which computers are on which segments), forwards it on the right path (which means to the correct outgoing port). The benefit of network segmentation (and the bridge) is that the amount of competition for use of the network path is reduced by half (assuming each segment has the same number of computers) and the possibility of the network coming to a halt is significantly reduced.

Each bridge learns which computers are on which segment by sending any first-time message to both segments (this is known as flooding) and then noticing and recording the segment from which a computer replied to the message. Gradually, the bridge builds a picture for itself of which computers are in which segments. When a second and subsequent messages are sent, the bridge can use its table to determine which segment to forward it to. The approach of allowing the bridge to learn the network through experience is known as transparent bridging (meaning that bridging does not require setup by an administrator).

In order to build into a network, it is typical to add a second bridge between two segments as a backup in case the primary bridge fails. Both bridges need to continually understand the topography of the network, even though only one is actually forwarding messages. And both bridges need to have some way to understand which bridge is the primary one. To do this, they have a separate path connection just between the bridges in which they exchange information, using bridge protocol data units (BPDUs).

The program in each bridge that allows it to determine how to use the protocol is known as the spanning tree algorithm. The algorithm is specifically constructed to avoid bridge loops (multiple paths linking one segment to another, resulting in an infinite loop situation). The algorithm is responsible for a bridge using only the most efficient path when faced with multiple paths. If the best path fails, the algorithm recalculates the network and finds the next best route.

The spanning tree algorithm determines the network (which computer hosts are in which segment) and this data is exchanged using Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs). It is broken down into two steps:

Step 1: The algorithm determines the best message a bridge can send by evaluating the configuration messages it has received and choosing the best option.

Step 2: Once it selects the top message for a particular bridge to send, it compares its choice with possible configuration messages from the non-root-connections it has. If the best option from step 1 isn't better than what it receives from the non-root-connections, it will prune that port.

The spanning tree protocol and algorithm were developed by a committe of the IEEE. Currently, the IEEE is attempting to institute enhancements to the spanning tree algorithm that will reduce network recovery time. The goal is to go from 30 to 60 seconds after a failure or change in link status to less than 10 seconds. The enhancement, called Rapid Reconfiguration or Fast Spanning Tree, would cut down on data loss and session timeouts when large, Ethernet networks recover after a topology change or a device failure.

posted Oct 7, 2014 by Vrije Mani Upadhyay

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RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
is a distance-vector routing protocol. It's been around for years and is no longer used very much. It's a protocol used by routing nodes to exchange network information. Each node that supports RIP advertises all the networks it knows about, typically every 30 seconds, using one or more broadcast packets. RIP can be used to route IP, IPX, and other protocols.

Routing tables are stored by each node supporting RIP. As advertisements from other RIP nodes are received, the routes to networks are added to the table. The route that gets stored is via the router that is closest, based on the number of hops away it is (the distance). It's simplest to think of a hop as another RIP router.

Routes can appear and disappear in a network as outages invariably happen. A RIP router will age out a route if it stops receiving advertisements for it from other RIP routers. This process can take several minutes, depending on the configuration, so RIP is not the most desirable routing protocol to use. High availability is not in it's vocabulary!

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THE PING PROCESS

Step 1-

The source host generates an ICMP protocol data unit.

Step 2-

The ICMP PDU is encapsulated in an IPdatagram, with the source and *destination***IP addresses** in the IP header. At this point the datagram is most properly referred to as an ICMPECHOdatagram, but we will call it an IPdatagram from here on since that's what it looks like to the networks it is sent over.

Step 3-

The source host notes the local time on it's clock as it transmits the IPdatagram towards the destination. Each host that receives the IPdatagram checks the destination address to see if it matches their own address or is the all hosts address (all 1's in the host field of the IP address).

 Step 4-

If the destination IP address in the IPdatagram does not match the local host's address, the IPdatagram is forwarded to the network where the IP address resides.

Step 5-

The destination host receives the IPdatagram, finds a match between itself and the destination address in the IPdatagram.

Step 6-

The destination host notes the ICMPECHO information in the IPdatagram, performs any necessary work then destroys the original IP/ICMPECHOdatagram.

Step 7-

The destination host creates an ICMPECHO REPLY, encapsulates it in an IP datagram placing it's own IP address in the source IP address field, and the original sender's IP address in the destination field of the IPdatagram.

Step 8-

The new IPdatagram is routed back to the originator of the PING. The host receives it, notes the time on the clock and finally prints PING output information, including the elapsed time.

The process above is repeated until all requested ICMPECHO packets have been sent and their responses have been received or the default 2-second timeout expired. The default 2-second timeout is local to the host initiating the PING and is NOT the Time-To-Live value in the datagram.

NOTES ON 'FAILED' RESPONSES

Note that an ICMPECHO REPLY might return after the default 2-second timeout. Thus the packet did return, it just did not do so in the 2 seconds alotted. When experiencing so-called packet loss when using ping, it is always a good idea to increase the default 2 second timeout to see if packets are no longer being dropped. If increasing the default timeout value seems to improve performance by reducing packet loss, then your problem is NOT a packet loss issue, it is a congestion issue caused by high load at one of the following locations (in order of frequency):

1.Your own Internet connection to your ISP
2.The remote server
3.The remote host's connection to their ISP
4.A peering point between two ISP's which your traffic transits over

Large companies maintaining websites (eg. Google, Yahoo, Microsoft, CNN, AOL etc.) usually monitor their Internet connections to help them prepare for upgrades to their Internet provider before any serious issues arise. They keep a five minute running average byte-count of the input and output of each Internet pipe and trend the utilization over weeks, months and years. This gives them the ability to predict when they will run out of bandwidth under normal usage.

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