1. CSS font shorthand rule
When styling fonts with CSS you may be doing this:
There's no need though as you can use this CSS shorthand property:
font: bold italic small-caps 1em/1.5em verdana,sans-serif
Much better! Just a few of words of warning: This CSS shorthand version will only work if you're specifying both the font-size and the font-family. The font-family command must always be at the very end of this shorthand command, and font-size must come directly before this. Also, if you don't specify the font-weight, font-style, or font-variant then these values will automatically default to a value of normal, so do bear this in mind too.
2. Two classes together
Usually attributes are assigned just one class, but this doesn't mean that that's all you're allowed. In reality, you can assign as many classes as you like! For example:
<p class="text side">...</p>
Using these two classes together (separated by a space, not with a comma) means that the paragraph calls up the rules assigned to both text and side. If any rules overlap between the two classes then the class which is below the other in the CSS document will take precedence.
3. CSS border default value
When writing a border rule you'll usually specify the colour, width and style (in any order). For example, border: 3px solid #000 will give you a black solid border,
3px thick. However the only required value here is the border style.
If you were to write just border: solid then the defaults for that border will be used. But what defaults? Well, the default width for a border is medium (equivalent to about 3 to 4px) and the default colour is that of the text colour within that border. If either of these are what you want for the border then you can leave them out of the CSS rule!
4. CSS document for printing
Lots of web pages have a link to a print-friendly version. What many of them don't realise is that there's no need because you can set up a second CSS document to be called up when a user prints the page.
So, your page header should contains links to two CSS documents, one for the screen, and one for printing:
<link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="stylesheet.css" media="screen" />
<link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="printstyle.css" media="print" />
The first line of code calls up the CSS for the screen (
notice the inclusion of media="screen") and the second line calls up the CSS for the printable version (
So, what commands should you put in this second CSS document? To work it out, open a blank document and save it as printstyle.css. Next, point the screen CSS command to this document so that the command reads:
<link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="printstyle.css" media="screen" />.
Now just keep entering CSS commands until the display on the screen matches how you want the printed version to look. You'll certainly want to make use of the display: none command for navigation, decorative images and non-essential items. For more advice on this, read Print Different, which also mentions the other media for which you can specify CSS files.
5. Image replacement technique
It's always advisable to use regular HTML markup to display text, as opposed to an image. Doing so allows for a faster download speed and has accessibility benefits. However, if you've absolutely got your heart set on using a certain font and your site visitors are unlikely to have that font on their computers, then really you've got no choice but to use an image.
Say for example, you wanted the top heading of each page to be ‘Buy widgets’, as you're a widget seller and you'd like to be found for this phrase in the search engines. You're pretty set on it being an obscure font so you need to use an image:
<h1><img src="widget-image.gif" alt="Buy widgets" /></h1>
This is OK but there's strong evidence to suggest that search engines don't assign as much importance to alt text as they do real text (because so many webmasters use the alt text to cram in keywords). So, an alternative would be:
Now, this obviously won't use your obscure font. To fix this problem place these commands in your CSS document:
background: url(widget-image.gif) no-repeat;
height: image height
Be sure to change "image height" to whatever the height of the image is (e.g.
85px)! The image, with your fancy font, will now display and the regular text will be safely out of the way,
positioned 2000px to the left of the screen thanks to our CSS rule. Please note, this can cause accessibility issues as any user with images turned off won't be able to see the text.