Exceptions which are inherited from the Exception class are checked exceptions. Programmer/Client code has to handle the checked exceptions thrown by the API, either with try-catch block or with throws clause. i.e. SQLException, IOException.
RuntimeException also extends from Exception. There is no requirement for the Programmer/client code to deal with them, and hence they are called unchecked exceptions. i.e. NullPointerException, DivideByZeroException.