Trying to understand the question in your perspective and answering accordingly.
1) Encryption/Ciphering type: Snow3g, AES, ZUC algorithm are used in lte.
As Vimal explained above these would be used for LTE signalling. As you said except radio part I haven't understand it clearly as LTE signalling is between UE<-->MME then offcourse radio will come into picture.
2) If you want to talk about security in core-network. IP Sec can be used. This will apply security between eNB<-->(MME | SGW | PGW). It protect the IP layer data.