Linear regression is a linear system and the coefficients can be calculated analytically using linear algebra. ...
Linear regression does provide a useful exercise for learning stochastic gradient descent which is an important algorithm used for minimizing cost functions by machine learning algorithms.
Linear regression is a very simple approach for supervised learning. Though it may seem somewhat dull compared to some of the more modern algorithms, linear regression is still a useful and widely used statistical learning method. Linear regression is used to predict a quantitative response Y from the predictor variable X. Linear Regression is made with an assumption that there’s a linear relationship between X and Y.
Linear regression is a linear model, e.g. a model that assumes a linear relationship between the input variables (x) and the single output variable (y). More specifically, that y can be calculated from a linear combination of the input variables (x).
When there is a single input variable (x), the method is referred to as simple linear regression. When there are multiple input variables, literature from statistics often refers to the method as multiple linear regression.
What is H2O in Machine Learning? H2O.ai is a leader in the 2018 Gartner Magic Quadrant for Data Science and Machine Learning Platforms.
H2O is open-source software for big-data analysis. It is produced by the company H2O.ai. H2O allows users to fit thousands of potential models as part of discovering patterns in data.
The H2O software runs can be called from the statistical package R, Python, and other environments. It is used for exploring and analyzing datasets held in cloud computing systems and in the Apache Hadoop Distributed File System as well as in the conventional operating-systems Linux, macOS, and Microsoft Windows.
The H2O software is written in Java, Python, and R. Its graphical-user-interface is compatible with four browsers: Chrome, Safari, Firefox, and Internet Explorer.
H2O is a Java-based software for data modeling and general computing. The H2O software is many things, but the primary purpose of H2O is as a distributed (many machines), parallel (many CPUs), in memory (several hundred GBs Xmx) processing engines.
There are two levels of parallelism:
- within node - across (or between) nodes The goal of H2O is to allow simple horizontal scaling to a given problem in order to produce a solution faster. The conceptual paradigm MapReduce, along with a good concurrent application structure, enable this type of scaling in H2O.
Video for H2O https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9W_c2Ec23PM
Machine learning is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can access data and use it learn for themselves.
Machine learning is a field of computer science that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed
Machine learning is closely related to (and often overlaps with) computational statistics, which also focuses on prediction-making through the use of computers. It has strong ties to mathematical optimization, which delivers methods, theory and application domains to the field. Machine learning is sometimes conflated with data mining, where the latter subfield focuses more on exploratory data analysis and is known as unsupervised learning.Machine learning can also be unsupervised and be used to learn and establish baseline behavioral profiles for various entities and then used to find meaningful anomalies.
The process of learning begins with observations or data, such as examples, direct experience, or instruction, in order to look for patterns in data and make better decisions in the future based on the examples that we provide. The primary aim is to allow the computers learn automatically without human intervention or assistance and adjust actions accordingly.
MLlib (Spark) is Apache Spark’s machine learning library. Its goal is to make practical machine learning scalable and easy. It consists of common learning algorithms and utilities, including classification, regression, clustering, collaborative filtering, dimensionality reduction, as well as lower-level optimization primitives and higher-level pipeline APIs.
Regression: generalized linear regression, survival regression,...
Decision trees, random forests, and gradient-boosted trees
Recommendation: alternating least squares (ALS)
Clustering: K-means, Gaussian mixtures (GMMs),...
Topic modeling: latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)
Frequent itemsets, association rules, and sequential pattern mining
Spark revolves around the concept of a resilient distributed dataset (RDD), which is a fault-tolerant collection of elements that can be operated on in parallel. There are two ways to create RDDs: parallelizing an existing collection in your driver program, or referencing a dataset in an external storage system, such as a shared filesystem, HDFS, HBase, or any data source offering a Hadoop InputFormat.
Keras is a high-level neural networks API, written in Python and capable of running on top of TensorFlow, CNTK, or Theano. It was developed with a focus on enabling fast experimentation. Being able to go from idea to result with the least possible delay is key to doing good research.
Allows for easy and fast prototyping (through user friendliness, modularity, and extensibility).
Supports both convolutional networks and recurrent networks, as well as combinations of the two.
Runs seamlessly on CPU and GPU.
User friendliness. Keras is an API designed for human beings, not machines. It puts user experience front and center. Keras follows best practices for reducing cognitive load: it offers consistent & simple APIs, it minimizes the number of user actions required for common use cases, and it provides clear and actionable feedback upon user error.
Modularity. A model is understood as a sequence or a graph of standalone, fully-configurable modules that can be plugged together with as few restrictions as possible. In particular, neural layers, cost functions, optimizers, initialization schemes, activation functions, regularization schemes are all standalone modules that you can combine to create new models.
Easy extensibility. New modules are simple to add (as new classes and functions), and existing modules provide ample examples. To be able to easily create new modules allows for total expressiveness, making Keras suitable for advanced research.
Work with Python. No separate models configuration files in a declarative format. Models are described in Python code, which is compact, easier to debug, and allows for ease of extensibility
MLlib is Spark’s scalable machine learning library consisting of common learning algorithms and utilities, including classification, regression, clustering, collaborative filtering, dimensionality reduction, as well as underlying optimization primitives, as outlined below:
Classification and regression
Feature extraction and transformation
Spark Core is the foundation of the overall project. It provides distributed task dispatching, scheduling, and basic I/O functionalities, exposed through an application programming interface centered on the RDD abstraction This interface mirrors a functional/higher-order model of programming: a "driver" program invokes parallel operations such as map, filter or reduce on an RDD by passing a function to Spark, which then schedules the function's execution in parallel on the cluster.
These operations, and additional ones such as joins, take RDDs as input and produce new RDDs. RDDs are immutable and their operations are lazy; fault-tolerance is achieved by keeping track of the "lineage" of each RDD so that it can be reconstructed in the case of data loss. RDDs can contain any type of Python, Java, or Scala objects.