You use a self join when a table references data in itself.
E.g., an Employee table may have a SupervisorID column that points to the employee that is the boss of the current employee.
To query the data and get information for both people in one row, you could self join like this:
e2.FirstName as SupervisorFirstName,
e2.LastName as SupervisorLastName
from Employee e1
left outer join Employee e2 on e1.SupervisorID = e2.EmployeeID