MLlib (Spark) is Apache Spark’s machine learning library. Its goal is to make practical machine learning scalable and easy. It consists of common learning algorithms and utilities, including classification, regression, clustering, collaborative filtering, dimensionality reduction, as well as lower-level optimization primitives and higher-level pipeline APIs.
Regression: generalized linear regression, survival regression,...
Decision trees, random forests, and gradient-boosted trees
Recommendation: alternating least squares (ALS)
Clustering: K-means, Gaussian mixtures (GMMs),...
Topic modeling: latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)
Frequent itemsets, association rules, and sequential pattern mining
Spark revolves around the concept of a resilient distributed dataset (RDD), which is a fault-tolerant collection of elements that can be operated on in parallel. There are two ways to create RDDs: parallelizing an existing collection in your driver program, or referencing a dataset in an external storage system, such as a shared filesystem, HDFS, HBase, or any data source offering a Hadoop InputFormat.
Keras is a high-level neural networks API, written in Python and capable of running on top of TensorFlow, CNTK, or Theano. It was developed with a focus on enabling fast experimentation. Being able to go from idea to result with the least possible delay is key to doing good research.
Allows for easy and fast prototyping (through user friendliness, modularity, and extensibility).
Supports both convolutional networks and recurrent networks, as well as combinations of the two.
Runs seamlessly on CPU and GPU.
User friendliness. Keras is an API designed for human beings, not machines. It puts user experience front and center. Keras follows best practices for reducing cognitive load: it offers consistent & simple APIs, it minimizes the number of user actions required for common use cases, and it provides clear and actionable feedback upon user error.
Modularity. A model is understood as a sequence or a graph of standalone, fully-configurable modules that can be plugged together with as few restrictions as possible. In particular, neural layers, cost functions, optimizers, initialization schemes, activation functions, regularization schemes are all standalone modules that you can combine to create new models.
Easy extensibility. New modules are simple to add (as new classes and functions), and existing modules provide ample examples. To be able to easily create new modules allows for total expressiveness, making Keras suitable for advanced research.
Work with Python. No separate models configuration files in a declarative format. Models are described in Python code, which is compact, easier to debug, and allows for ease of extensibility
MLlib is Spark’s scalable machine learning library consisting of common learning algorithms and utilities, including classification, regression, clustering, collaborative filtering, dimensionality reduction, as well as underlying optimization primitives, as outlined below:
Classification and regression
Feature extraction and transformation
Spark Core is the foundation of the overall project. It provides distributed task dispatching, scheduling, and basic I/O functionalities, exposed through an application programming interface centered on the RDD abstraction This interface mirrors a functional/higher-order model of programming: a "driver" program invokes parallel operations such as map, filter or reduce on an RDD by passing a function to Spark, which then schedules the function's execution in parallel on the cluster.
These operations, and additional ones such as joins, take RDDs as input and produce new RDDs. RDDs are immutable and their operations are lazy; fault-tolerance is achieved by keeping track of the "lineage" of each RDD so that it can be reconstructed in the case of data loss. RDDs can contain any type of Python, Java, or Scala objects.
TensorFlow™ is an open source software library for numerical computation using data flow graphs. Nodes in the graph represent mathematical operations, while the graph edges represent the multidimensional data arrays (tensors) communicated between them.
The flexible architecture allows you to deploy computation to one or more CPUs or GPUs in a desktop, server, or mobile device with a single API.
TensorFlow was originally developed by researchers and engineers working on the Google Brain Team within Google's Machine Intelligence research organization for the purposes of conducting machine learning and deep neural networks research, but the system is general enough to be applicable in a wide variety of other domains as well.
An open-source software library for Machine Intelligence
TensorFlow is cross-platform. It runs on nearly everything: GPUs and CPUs—including mobile and embedded platforms—and even tensor processing units (TPUs), which are specialized hardware to do tensor math on. They aren't widely available yet, but we have recently launched an alpha program.
TensorFlow's high-level APIs, in conjunction with computation graphs, enable a rich and flexible development environment and powerful production capabilities in the same framework.
It's portable, as the graph can be executed immediately or saved to use later, and it can run on multiple platforms: CPUs, GPUs, TPUs, mobile, embedded. Also, it can be deployed to production without having to depend on any of the code that built the graph, only the runtime necessary to execute it.
It's transformable and optimizable, as the graph can be transformed to produce a more optimal version for a given platform. Also, memory or compute optimizations can be performed and trade-offs made between them. This is useful, for example, in supporting faster mobile inference after training on larger machines.
Scikit-learn (formerly scikits.learn) is a free software machine learning library for the Python programming language. It features various classification, regression and clustering algorithms including support vector machines, random forests, gradient boosting, k-means and DBSCAN, and is designed to interoperate with the Python numerical and scientific libraries NumPy and SciPy.
Simple and efficient tools for data mining and data analysis
Accessible to everybody, and reusable in various contexts
Built on NumPy, SciPy, and matplotlib
Open source, commercially usable - BSD license
scikit-learn comes with a few standard datasets, for instance the iris and digits datasets for classification and the boston house prices dataset for regression.
Scikit-learn is largely written in Python, with some core algorithms written in Cython to achieve performance. Support vector machines are implemented by a Cython wrapper around LIBSVM; logistic regression and linear support vector machines by a similar wrapper around LIBLINEAR.
Linear regression is a linear system and the coefficients can be calculated analytically using linear algebra. ...
Linear regression does provide a useful exercise for learning stochastic gradient descent which is an important algorithm used for minimizing cost functions by machine learning algorithms.
Linear regression is a very simple approach for supervised learning. Though it may seem somewhat dull compared to some of the more modern algorithms, linear regression is still a useful and widely used statistical learning method. Linear regression is used to predict a quantitative response Y from the predictor variable X. Linear Regression is made with an assumption that there’s a linear relationship between X and Y.
Linear regression is a linear model, e.g. a model that assumes a linear relationship between the input variables (x) and the single output variable (y). More specifically, that y can be calculated from a linear combination of the input variables (x).
When there is a single input variable (x), the method is referred to as simple linear regression. When there are multiple input variables, literature from statistics often refers to the method as multiple linear regression.