The US have clearly won the most gold medals and the most medals overall, more than doubling the next ranked country (these figures include medals won in Rio 2016). Second-placed USSR had fewer appearances at the Olympics and actually won more medals on average (see the 2nd table).
The top 10 includes one country no longer in existence (the Soviet Union), so their medal totals will obviously not increase, however, China is expected to continue a rapid rise up the ranks. With the addition of the 2016 data, China has moved up from 11th (in 2008) to 9th (2012) to 7th (2016). The country which has attended the most games without a medal is Monaco (20 Olympic Games), the country which has won the most medals without winning a gold medal is Malaysia (0 gold, 7 silver, 4 bronze).