The 2006 FIBA World Championship was hosted by Japan from August 19 to September 3, 2006. It was co-organised by the International Basketball Federation (FIBA), Japan Basketball Association (JABBA) and the 2006 Organizing Committee. For the first time since 1986, the World Championship was contested by 24 nations, eight more than in 2002. As a result, group rounds were conducted in four different cities, with the knockout rounds being hosted by Saitama City.
The tournament was won by Spain, who, in the championship final, beat Greece, 70–47, to finish the tournament having won all nine games played. The bronze medal was won by the United States, who defeated Argentina, 96–81, in the third place game.