Each pair of definitions is for two words, where the second word is the first word with an extra letter added somewhere (example: band & brand). The length of the short word in each pair is provided.
1) a unit of currency & debris from buildings, as from an earthquake (5 letters)
2) unappetizing semi liquid food & a single masted sailing vessel (4 letters)
3) a type of simple machine & ingenious or quick witted (5 letters)
4) the universe and everything in it & the act of burning something to ashes (8 letters)