Lubna of Córdoba was famous for her knowledge of grammar, the quality of her poetry, and for her mathematical skill, knowledge and understanding. She was a driving force behind the creation of the famous library of Medina Azahara. She was private secretary to her father, Al-Hakam II, the Caliph of Córdoba. She was said to be "thoroughly versed in the exact sciences; her talents were equal to the solution of the most complex geometrical and algebraic problems". According to the 12th century historian Ibn Bashkuwal, she excelled in writing, grammar, and poetry ... mastered the writing and science of poetry, ... her knowledge of mathematics was broad and great, and she has mastered many other sciences and there was no one nobler then her in the Umayyad palace". Dr. Ali Al-Halawani, Assistant Professor of Linguistics and Translation, International Islamic University Malaysia: "Her knowledge and skill as far as mathematics is concerned were of paramount standing. She was attested to as a great mathematician with marvellous mathematical skills ... she was also a poet, a philosopher and a calligrapher. The legacy she left contains many beautiful works and pieces of calligraphy and the Islamic art thereof .... she was the Caliphs secretary and scribe [and as such] she was not merely a writer and a translator, she was an annotator and commentator of the books she transcribed and/or translated. She was a real scholar with diverse knowledge and vast experience. She was responsible for the copying of many important texts including works by Euclid and Archimedes, as well as providing her own annotations to the already existing texts."