There are six major type of soil found in india:
- Alluvial Soils
- Black Soils
- Red Soils
- Desert Soils
- Laterite Soils
- Mountain Soils
Alluvial soil is the important type of soil found in India covering about 40 per cent of the total land area. It is very fertile and contributes the largest share of agricultural wealth. This soil supports nearly half of the Indian population.
Black soil is mostly found in the Deccan Trap, covering large areas of Maharashtra, Gujarat and western Madhya Pradesh. It is also found in some parts Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Cotton is the most important crop grown in this soil. The black soil is well-known for its capacity to hold moisture.
Red soil is found in Tamil Nadu, parts of Karnataka, some parts of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa .Its red colour is due to the high percentage of iron contents.
Laterite soil is widely spread in India and is mainly found on Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats.the soil is suitable for producing plantation crops like tea, coffee, rubber, coconut, arecanut, etc. And also provides valuable building materials.
Desert soil is found mostly in the arid and semi-arid region like Rajastan and Punjab.
Mountain soil is generally found on the hill slopes covered with forests.This soil is especially suitable for producing plantation crops, such as tea, coffee, spices and tropical fruits in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.