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10 Food secrets that make you live longer

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Some things about life—and how long we get to enjoy it—are out of our control. But emerging nutrition science research, as well as data collected from people in their 90s and beyond, shows what, when, and how we eat has a profound influence on how long we live. Want to eat for a long and healthy life?

Let's take a look at 10 food secrets that make you live longer:

1. All the green, leafy things

Produce, whole grains and beans dominate meals all year long in each of the Blue Zones. People eat an impressive variety of vegetables when they are in season, and then pickle or dry the surplus. The best of the best longevity foods are leafy greens. In Ikaria, more than 75 varieties grow like weeds. Studies found that middle-aged people who consumed the equivalent of a cup of cooked greens daily were half as likely to die in the next four years as those who ate no greens.

2. Consume meat no more than twice a week

Families in a large portion of the Blue Zones appreciate meat sparingly, as a side or an approach to season different dishes. Mean to constrain your admission to 2 ounces or less of cooked meat (a sum littler than a deck of cards) five times each month. Furthermore, support chicken, sheep or pork from family ranches. The meat in the Blue Zones originates from creatures that touch or scrounge uninhibitedly, which likely prompts more elevated amounts of omega-3 unsaturated fats.

3. Eat up to 3 ounces of fish daily

The Adventist Health Study 2, which has been following 96,000 Americans since 2002, found that individuals who ate a plant-based eating routine and incorporated a little part of fish up to once a day were the ones who experienced the longest. In the Blue Zones abroad, angle is a typical piece of regular suppers. Generally, the best fish decisions are center of-the-natural pecking order species, for example, sardines, anchovies and cod, which aren't presented to elevated amounts of mercury or different chemicals.

4. Cut back on dairy

The human digestive system isn't optimized for cow's milk, which happens to be high in fat and sugar. People in the Blue Zones get their calcium from plants. (A cup of cooked kale, for instance, gives you as much calcium as a cup of milk.) However, goat's- and sheep's-milk products like yogurt and cheese are common in the traditional diets of Ikaria and Sardinia. We don't know if it's the milk that makes folks healthier or the fact that they climb the same hilly terrain as their goats.

5. Enjoy up to three eggs per week

In the Blue Zones, individuals have a tendency to eat only one egg at any given moment: For instance, Nicoyans broil an egg to crease into a corn tortilla and Okinawans heat up an egg in soup. Give filling a shot a one-egg breakfast with natural product or other plant-based nourishments, for example, entire grain porridge or bread. When heating, utilize 1/4 measure of fruit purée, 1/4 measure of pureed potatoes or a little banana to sub in for one egg.

6. Add a half cup of cooked beans every day

Black beans in Nicoya, soybeans in Okinawa, lentils, garbanzo and white beans in the Mediterranean: Beans are the cornerstone of Blue Zones diets. On average, beans are made up of 21 percent protein, 77 percent complex carbohydrates and only a little fat. They're also an excellent source of fiber and are packed with more nutrients per gram than any other food on earth. The Blue Zones dietary average—at least 1/2 cup per day—provides most of the vitamins and minerals that you need.

7. Go nuts

A handful of nuts a day can add many days to your life, according to a study done by the Harvard Medical School. People who noshed on almonds, walnuts, pistachios, and other tasty treats were 20 percent less likely to die from any cause. While the reason why isn't clear yet, the researchers think it has to do how nuts help us feel fuller faster and help control blood sugar spikes. Plus, nuts are a great source of vital minerals like magnesium, as well as protein and fiber, which have also been linked to a longer life.

8. Be berry good

Strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, and different berries are as solid as they are delicious. A 2013 Spanish examination found that individuals who ate the delightful organic product a few times each week had a 30 percent bring down danger of biting the dust. Analysts think the lift in life span is on account of berries' high grouping of polyphenols, a micronutrient appeared to avoid degenerative maladies.

9. Up your water intake

Adventists recommend having seven glasses daily, pointing to studies that show that being hydrated lessens the chance of a blood clot. Plus, if you're drinking water, you're not drinking a sugar-laden or artificially sweetened beverage.

10. Drink green tea

Okinawans nurse green tea all day long, and green tea has been shown to lower the risk of heart disease and several cancers. Ikarians drink brews of rosemary, wild sage and dandelion—all herbs with anti-inflammatory properties.

posted Jul 18, 2017 by Saheb Pro

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An anti-cancer diet is an important strategy you can use to reduce your risk of cancer. The American Cancer Society recommends, for example, that you eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables daily and eat the right amount of food to stay at a healthy weight. In addition, researchers are finding that certain foods may be particularly useful in protecting you from cancer.

This article of the following foods and drinks helps you to fight against cancer:

1. Garlic

Garlic helps regulate blood sugar levels and reduce insulin production. Low insulin levels in your blood cells helps to prevent tumor-growing cells. Garlic is known to reduce the risk for breast and prostate cancer. A phytonutrient in garlic called diallyl disulfide helps prevent cancer of the lung, skin and colon. Diallyl disulfide also helps to kill leukemia cells, according to Foods That Heal.

2. Broccoli

Broccoli is another plant that can help minimize the possibility of getting cancer. It contains several nutrients such as vitamins A and C, calcium, fiber and folic acid. The calcium content of broccoli not only builds strong bones but research has shown that it is also responsible for managing high blood pressure. Broccoli also contains two phytochemicals that are very crucial to our health. These chemicals are; Isothiocyanates and indoles. These enzymes increase the activity of various enzymes in our body that are known to suppress agents that cause cancer. Health organizations recommend the intake of broccoli several times per week and they are linked to low rates of cancer.

3. Beans

All beans contain compounds called protease inhibitors that help prevent cancerous cells from affecting nearby tissue. Phytochemicals in beans help to slow down or prevent damage to cells that cause cancer. Beans have been found to reduce the risk of prostate cancer, according to the Stanford Prevention Research Center.

4. Turmeric

Turmeric is widely used in India for cooking because of its flavor and the yellow color that makes food look appealing. It is also used to make mustard and to add color to cheese and butter. Turmeric has been used for the treatment of various health conditions for over 4,000. Studies reveal that turmeric may be useful against multiple infections and certain types of cancers, treat problems of the digestive system and reduce inflammation.

5. Grapes

The skin of red grapes is a particularly rich source of an antioxidant called resveratrol. Grape juice and red wine also contain this antioxidant. According to the National Cancer Institute, resveratrol may be useful in keeping cancer from beginning or spreading. Lab studies have found that it limits the growth of many kinds of cancer cells; in men, moderate amounts of red wine have been linked to a lower risk of prostate cancer.

6. Tomatoes

Tomatoes are the primary source of lycopene which is an antioxidant that makes tomatoes red. It is also known to protect cells and the DNA from being damaged. Approximately 10,000 deaths occur every year in the UK due to prostate cancer with around 35000 cases of new infection. Studies have revealed that men who have a high intake of tomatoes are less likely to get prostate cancer.

7. Carrots

Caretenoids, which include beta-carotene that gives carrots their color, are responsible for the anti-cancer action it has in your cells. Falcarinol is an anti-cancer compound in carrots that is more effective when carrots are cooked whole instead of sliced. Other anti-cancer properties in carrots are known to reduce your risk for cervical, bladder, colon and breast cancer in post-menopausal women, according to Foods That Heal.

8. Green Tea

Green tea is said to be very beneficial to our health because it contains nutrients and antioxidants; That have very influential effects to our body. It not only improves the functioning of the brain but it also helps in weight loss and reduces the risk of certain types of cancer, such as; Prostate cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer. Research also highly advises people not to put milk in their tea as this could decrease the value of the antioxidants.

9. Whole Grain Foods

According to the American Institute for Cancer Research, whole grains contain many components that might lower your risk of cancer, including fiber and antioxidants. A large study including nearly half a million people found that eating more whole grains might lower the risk of colorectal cancer, making them a top item in the category of foods to fight cancer. Oatmeal, barley, brown rice, and whole-wheat bread and pasta are all examples of whole grains.

10. Bok Choy

It is a cruciferous vegetable, and it is a staple food in Asia. It belongs to the Genus Brassica, and it’s juicy and tasty stalks. Its leaves are very popular in the western world. it is rich in vitamins C and A, minerals, vitamins, phytonutrients and antioxidants. Antioxidants such as indole-3-carbinol, thiocyanates, zeaxanthin, isothiocyanates, and sulforaphane. In addition to vitamins and fiber have been found to prevent certain cancers of the colon, prostate, and breast. Besides cancer prevention, they also help to reduce the level of LDL in the blood.

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Some people have trouble falling asleep. Others can’t stay asleep. And then there are the people who have trouble turning life “off” and tucking into bed at a reasonable hour.
Whatever the reason, we’re not alone—more than 50 million Americans don’t get enough shut-eye. Yet the health benefits of a good night’s rest are countless: sleep helps keep you happy, your brain sharp, your immune system strong, your waistline trim, your skin looking youthful—and lowers your risk of high blood pressure and heart disease.

Let's take a look at 10 foods that can help you sleep better:

1. Cherries

Grab some fresh cherries or a glass of cherry juice before bed, and you can start catching Zs in no time. Researchers have found drinking tart cherry juice right before bed helps you fall asleep. Some studies suggest it is more effective than taking melatonin supplements.

2. Milk

A glass of warm milk before bed has long been thought of as the ultimate sleep remedy. Since calcium promotes relaxation and has a calming effect on the body’s nervous system, try drinking milk or a non-dairy milk substitute that’s calcium-fortified before you start your nighttime routine.

3. Fish

Most fish—and especially salmon, halibut and tuna—boast vitamin B6, which is needed to make melatonin (a sleep-inducing hormone triggered by darkness), according to an article published in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Everyday Health recommends a 3-ounce serving of fish at least two times per week to aid in restful sleep.

4. Jasmine rice

When healthy sleepers ate carbohydrate-rich suppers of veggies and tomato sauce over rice, they fell asleep significantly faster at bedtime if the meal included high-glycemic-index (GI) jasmine rice rather than lower-GI long-grain rice, in a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. While the authors aren’t sure how it happened, they speculated that the greater amounts of insulin triggered by the high-GI meals increased the ratio of sleep-inducing tryptophan relative to other amino acids in the blood, allowing proportionately more to get into the brain.

5. Bananas

The magnesium and potassium in bananas serve as muscle and nerve relaxants. Dudash says that the vitamin B6 found in the fruit also converts tryptophan into serotonin, increasing relaxation even more.

6. Oysters

Oysters contain a sleep-inducing mixture of zinc, iron, magnesium, and vitamin B11. According to Livestrong, oysters are the best food source of magnesium and zinc. A 3-ounce portion of cooked oysters provides 19% of the daily recommended amount of magnesium and well over 1,000% of your RDA of zinc.

7. Herbal tea

No surprise here, but herbal tea has tons of snooze-promoting properties. "Chamomile tea is excellent for calming nerves before bedtime," says London. "It's also hydrating and stomach-soothing, same as ginger tea."

8. Kiwi

A study from Taiwan’s Taipei Medical University found that eating two kiwi fruits around an hour before bedtime had surprising results. Psychology Today reports that study participants fell asleep more quickly, with a decrease in falling-asleep time of 35.4 percent. They also slept 28.9 percent more soundly and slept better, with a 42.4 percent improvement on a standardized sleep quality questionnaire. Overall, total sleep time for the study subjects increased by 13.4 percent.

9. Almonds

A study published in the Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine found that if the body is suffering from low levels of magnesium, sleep problems often ensue. The National Institutes of Health lists almonds as the number one source of magnesium; adding almonds to your diet is good all around, but may be especially good for boosting some shut-eye.

10. Peanut butter

Peanut butter also pack in filling protein too. Spread it on graham crackers, a banana or that sweet potato toast. Again, keep your dollop under a tablespoon so you're not feeling too stuffed before heading to bed.

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1. Diet and Aging – Gain a Nutritional Edge
What we eat is directly apparent in our body; our skin and hair reflect our nutritional state. To learn about the lifestyle of the old and healthy, many researchers look to Okinawa, Japan, which boasts the world’s highest concentration of healthy 100-year-olds. 
The diet of Japanese people was studied to find out the keys to longevity. Studies have found that Japanese people most rely on grains, vegetables and fruits. Their diet is low in red meat, dairy products and eggs. The lesson here is to choose your fats and carbohydrates wisely. Switch to healthier options such as wheat breads, whole-grain pasta or nuts, instead of refined flour products like white bread, cakes and muffins. Whenever possible, use monosaturated and polysaturated oils, and avoid trans fats completely. Several research studies have also agreed on the fact that a vegetarian diet is generally healthier than one based on animal protein. Fruits, vegetables and whole grains are full of fiber and nutrients.

2. Don’t Blame Everything on Your Genes
There is no doubt that your genes contribute a lot in terms of certain age-related diseases. However, studies have found that when it comes to living a healthy life, our genes only contribute roughly 10% to our overall health, while a staggering 90% is all about lifestyle choices. The way each of us chooses to live every day greatly impacts the quality and length of our lives. So when you’re feeling worn down or dealing with aches and pains, don’t simply blame it on heredity; examine your lifestyle.

3. Eat Foods in Their Natural State
Foods in their natural state are full of nutrients. Cooking actually changes the chemical composition of the food, thus affecting the nutrient levels. Steaming and roasting are known to be the best methods of cooking food, because they are better at preserving the nutrients in their natural state. A great way to maintain health is to consume three to five servings of raw veggies and fruits every day. It is also important to eat in moderation. Filling your stomach too much causes gastrointestinal problems, which in turn affects your overall health.

4. Develop Healthy Habits
If you want to live a long, healthy life, make sure you cultivate healthy habits and avoid unhealthy ones. Most important of all is to avoid smoking, which has long been known to contribute to various heart and lung diseases, and shorten your life span. Alcohol is another major culprit in an unhealthy lifestyle. Drink only in moderation to stay away from adverse health conditions.

5. Exercise
There is no doubt that, along with diet, exercise is the key to a healthy life. Most of the lifestyle-related disorders, including heart diseases, diabetes and others, originate from a sedentary lifestyle. Studies have found that 15 minutes of exercise per day adds three years to your life. Exercise lowers your vulnerability to heart attacks, heart failure and arrhythmia. Exercise also helps by improving the body’s ability to fight oxidative stress, a chemical by-product of cellular energy production. Oxidative damage of cells increases your vulnerability to various diseases. Many of us cannot spend regular time at a gym, but we can include leisure-time physical activity in our daily routine to stay fit and healthy. Include activities like tennis or swimming in your weekly routines, or just make some time to go play with your kids or pet in the park.

6. Make Good Friends You Can Trust
In today’s high-technology era, we all are connected to each other via social networks, smartphones, etc. Many of us are surrounded by people that we ‘know,’ but few of those we can truly call friends. It’s important to have people with whom we can share our happiness and sorrows. Negative personal relationships add stress, which in turn affects your overall health. The secret to a healthy, happy life is believing and trusting in people, and studies have proved the health benefits of having good friends. Friends provide emotional support, which helps us deal with stress, and feeling loved actually boosts production of the mood-elevating chemicals dopamine and oxytocin, which promote brain growth, combating aging.

7. Live Life to the Fullest
In today’s fast-paced lifestyle, we are often multitasking. Slowing down and enjoying the simpler aspects of life sometimes becomes an afterthought. Once in a while, it is important to relax a bit, and seek pleasure in whatever you are doing. Develop a positive attitude toward seeking the little joys in your life. This helps in strengthening the immune system, and equips the body to fight against diseases. Find something that helps you unwind and relaxes your mind and body. A healthy life is a combination of emotional, spiritual, social and lifestyle factors. No matter what your age, these factors, when they are largely positive, can help you live to a grand old age. Incorporate these guidelines for longevity in your day-to-day routine and live a healthy, happy and long life.

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Although we can find many foods in the supermarket that have been fortified with a synthetic form of vitamin D, there are only a select number of foods that naturally contain vitamin D. Normally, the human body makes its own vitamin D; exposure to sunlight is the catalyst for the synthesis of this hormone in the skin. But today, many people spend countless hours indoors, and exposure to the sun is limited. This fact may be a root cause of many ailments, including a depressed mood and weak bones. With age, bones can become weak and thin. Although you can’t turn back the hands of time, good nutrition is one of the best ways to encourage your body to be its best. Vitamin D is one nutrient in particular that supports normal bone density and strength.

Let's take a look at top 10 healthy vitamin D rich foods:

1. Sunlight

Sunlight spurs the body to make vitamin D. But because of the skin-cancer risk, there isn't an official recommendation to catch some rays. However, a small amount of sun exposure without sunscreen can do the trick. "If you're going to get it from the sun, about 20 to 25 minutes of exposure is helpful," says Stephen Honig, MD, director of the Osteoporosis Center at the Hospital for Joint Diseases, in New York City. The sun is less likely to provide your daily needs at higher latitudes, in the winter, or if you're older or dark skinned (skin pigment blocks light and the process is less efficient with age). And FYI: Light through a window won't work.

2. Mushrooms

Mushrooms are, in fact, the only plant source containing vitamin D. This genius grows in sunlight and is great at absorbing sunlight as well, making it a good vitamin D source. Mushrooms are also rich in B-complex vitamins like B1, B2, B5 and minerals like copper. The amount of vitamin D in mushrooms varies according to the type and variety. Shitake mushrooms are considered as the best source of vitamin D among all mushrooms. Always choose mushrooms that are dried in natural sunlight and not by artificial means.

3. Salmon

Salmon has a high fat content, which makes it an excellent source of vitamin D. Around 3.5 ounces of salmon will provide you with 80% of the recommended dietary amount of vitamin D. The key is to get salmon that has been caught in the wild or is sustainably farmed. Alaskan salmon contains 5 times more vitamin D than Atlantic salmon, which makes it the better choice. Half a fillet of sockeye salmon contains 1400 IU of vitamin D, which is twice the recommended amount you need for a day.

4. Herring

Herring fishes contain a significant amount of vitamin D as they feed on plankton, which is full of vitamin D. These shiny gray fish are consumed pickled, smoked or creamed. Herring contain healthy fats and other important nutrients, which make them a wise addition to your diet. They are also an excellent source of protein, which promotes muscle development, and contain high amounts of vitamin B12, selenium, phosphorus, calcium, and iron.

5. Sardines

Sardines are becoming more and more popular due to their amazing health benefits. They are one of the best sources of vitamin D. Just a small amount of sardines will fulfill 70% of your recommended dietary allowance of vitamin D. This fish offers 270 IU of vitamin D per 100 grams. They are also a great source of vitamin B12, omega-3 fatty acids, protein, and selenium. The high omega-3 fatty acid content contributes to better bone health, lowers cholesterol, and reduces inflammation.

6. Canned tuna

Three ounces of tuna provides 50% of the vitamin D your body needs. Fresh and wild-caught tuna is the most nutritious. Moreover, eating oily fish that lubricates the body also provides other health benefits like better memory and proper brain function. Light tuna has the maximum amount of vitamin D, and it has lesser mercury than white tuna.

7. Cod liver oil

While its name might suggest a less-than-savory flavor, cod liver oil is often flavored with mint or citrus, or comes in capsule form. One tablespoon contains about 1,300 IUs of vitamin D, which is more than twice the recommended dietary allowance of 600 IUs per day. That amount doesn't exceed the maximum upper-level intake of 4,000 IUs for people over 8 years old, but it exceeds the daily maximum for infants (1,000 IUs).

8. Fortified milk

Almost all types of cow's milk in the U.S. are fortified with vitamin D, but ice cream and cheese are not. In general, an 8-ounce glass of milk contains at least 100 IUs of vitamin D, and a 6-ounce serving of yogurt contains 80 IUs, but the amount can be higher (or lower) depending on how much is added. Some soy and rice milks are fortified with about the same amount, but check the label since not all contain vitamin D.

9. Orange juice

Not a dairy fan? No problem. You can get vitamin D from fortified orange juice. One 8-ounce glass of fortified juice usually has around 100 IUs of vitamin D, but the amount varies from brand to brand. Not all brands are fortified, so check the label. Two fortified brands, Florida Natural Orange Juice and Minute Maid Kids+ Orange Juice, contain 100 IUs per 8-ounce serving.

10. Eggs

Eggs are a convenient way to get vitamin D. They're popular in many breakfast, lunch, dinner, and dessert recipes. Since the vitamin D in an egg comes from its yolk, it's important to use the whole egg—not just the whites. One yolk will give you about 40 IUs, but don't try to get your daily vitamin D just from eggs. One egg contains about 200 milligrams of cholesterol, and the American Heart Association recommends consuming no more than 300 milligrams a day for heart health.

11. Fortified cereal

If you're a vitamin D seeker looking for a crunch, look no further than fortified cereals. Choose a low-calorie fortified cereal like Multi Grain Cheerios to get part of your daily fill of vitamin D. You can pair it with fortified milk and a glass of fortified OJ too. A 1-cup (29 gram) serving of Multi Grain Cheerios with one-half cup of fortified milk is 90 IUs; add in an 8-ounce glass of fortified orange juice, and your total is close to 200 IUs.

12. Butter

Good news for all the butter enthusiasts! While it is typically frowned upon by dieters, this ‘fatty’ food is known to contain a small amount of vitamin D. Butter is saturated fat, and it is essential to aid the absorption of antioxidants and vitamins by the body. It also assists in the absorption of vitamin D obtained from other sources. Always remember that quantity is the key. Don’t go overboard with butter. When consumed in moderation, it can actually be a healthy addition to your diet.

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Did you know, there are 196 countries in the world today? In fact, there are so many countries, whose names are also not recognized by many of us. There are so many informative facts about different countries.

Let's take a look at 10 Interesting and unknown facts about different countries that you need to know:

1. The country which still follows a traditional calendar that is seven years behind the rest of the world

Ethiopia still follows a traditional calendar that is seven years behind the rest of the world. Because of the strong presence of the Coptic Orthodox Church in the country, the traditional calendar of that church is still influential in Ethiopia. The calendar came about in the 16th century, when most of Christianity changed the date Jesus is believed to have been born on, but those in Ethiopia decided to maintain the original date. Because of the time discrepancy, Ethiopia held celebrations for the new millennium in 2007, seven years after the rest of the world.

2. The country which falls in all 4 hemispheres

Kiribati is the only country on the planet to fall into every one of the four hemispheres of the globe, straddling the equator and stretching out into the eastern and western hemispheres. Kiribati was also the first country to see the dawn of the third millennium on 1st January 2000.

3. The country which is smaller than Central Park in New York City

Smaller than Central Park in New York City – Monaco: Although Vatican City is smaller (.17 sq mi) than Monaco (.8 sq mi), not at all like Monaco it doesn’t have any permanent residents which leaves Monaco as the smallest permanently inhabited nation in the world… Smaller than Central Park.

4. The most diverse Country

The Most Diverse Country in the world is India: In almost every category – culturally, economically, climatically, racially, linguistically, ethnically, and religiously India is either the most diverse countries in the world, or the runner-up.

5. The Least Religious Country

A 2007–2008 Gallup survey found Estonia to be the least religious country in the world. The survey asked respondents from around the world, “Is religion an important part of your daily life?” Only 14% of Estonians answered in the affirmative, the lowest of all nations. In contrast, in that same poll, Egypt had a 100% “yes” rate.

6. There is another country which has Hindi as its official language

Fiji is the only country other than India with Hindi as an official language. Native Fijians make up 54% of the population. Under British rule, Indian labourers were brought to Fiji to work on the sugar cane crops. Descendants of these labourers are called Indo-Fijians and today they account for around 40% of the population.

7. There are countries which do not have an Army

There are 22 countries in the world that do not have an army, the large majority comprising tiny island states or enclaves. Incidentally, this doesn’t include the Vatican City, which has the c as a military corps.

8. The country which has 23 native languages

There are 23 native languages recognised by the government in Guatemala. Overall, about 40% of the population speak one of these languages, including Quiche, Kekchi, and Mam.

9.  The country which lies in 2 continents

Istanbul, Turkey, is the only country which falls in 2 continents.

10. The country which has the most amount of Obese people

Nauru has the most amount of Obese population in the world with over 95% of its population overweight.

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As the full moon approaches, its growing brightness tends to capture our attention.

The full moon occurs when the moon is on the opposite side of Earth from the sun, so that its face is fully illuminated by the sun's light. 

But any day of the month, the moon has some secrets up her sleeve. Here are 10 surprising and strange facts about the moon that may surprise you:

1) There's actually four kinds of lunar months

Our months correspond approximately to the length of time it takes our natural satellite to go through a full cycle of phases.  From excavated tally sticks, researchers have deduced that people from as early as the Paleolithic period counted days in relation to the moon's phases. But there are actually four different kinds of lunar months.  The durations listed here are averages.

1.     Anomalistic – the length of time it takes the moon to circle the Earth, measured from one perigee (the closest point in its orbit to Earth) to the next: 27 days, 13 hours, 18 minutes, 37.4 seconds.

2.     Nodical – the length of time it takes the moon to pass through one of its nodes (where it crosses the plane of the Earth's orbit) and return to it: 27 days, 5 hours, 5 minutes, 35.9 seconds.

3.     Sidereal – the length of time it takes the moon to circle the Earth, using the stars as a reference point: 27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes, 11.5 seconds.

4.     Synodical – the length of time it takes the moon to circle the Earth, using the sun as the reference point (that is, the time lapse between two successive conjunctions with the sun – going from new moon to new moon): 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, 2.7 seconds.  It is the synodic month that is the basis of many calendars today and is used to divide the year.

Supermoons can appear 30 percent brighter and up to 14 percent larger than typical full moons. 

2) We see slightly more than half of the moon from Earth

Most reference books will note that because the moon rotates only once during each revolution about the Earth, we never see more than half of its total surface. The truth, however, is that we actually get to see more of it over the course of its elliptical orbit: 59 percent (almost three-fifths). 

The moon's rate of rotation is uniform but its rate of revolution is not, so we're able to see just around the edge of each limb from time to time.  Put another way, the two motions do not keep perfectly in step, even though they come out together at the end of the month. We call this effect libration of longitude.

So the moon "rocks" in the east and west direction, allowing us to see farther around in longitude at each edge than we otherwise could. The remaining 41 percent can never be seen from our vantage point; and if anyone were on that region of the moon, they would never see the Earth.

3) It would take hundreds of thousands of moons to equal the brightness of the sun

The full moon shines with a magnitude of -12.7, but the sun is 14 magnitudes brighter, at -26.7.  The ratio of brightness of the sun versus the moon amounts to a difference of 398,110 to 1.  So that's how many full moons you would need to equal the brightness of the sun.  But this all a moot point, because there is no way that you could fit that many full moons in the sky.

The sky is 360 degrees around (including the half we can't see, below the horizon), so there are over 41,200 square degrees in the sky. The moon measures only a half degree across, which gives it an area of only 0.2 square degrees. So you could fill up the entire sky, including the half that lies below our feet,  with 206,264 full moons — and still come up short by 191,836 in the effort to match the brightness of the sun.

4) The first- or last-quarter moon is not one half as bright as a full moon

If the moon's surface were like a perfectly smooth billiard ball, its surface brightness would be the same all over. In such a case, it would indeed appear half as bright.

But the moon has a very rough topography. Especially near and along the day/night line (known as the terminator), the lunar landscape appears riddled with innumerable shadows cast by mountains, boulders and even tiny grains of lunar dust.  Also, the moon's face is splotched with dark regions.  The end result is that at first quarter, the moon appears only one eleventh as bright as when it's full. 

The moon is actually a little brighter at first quarter than at last quarter, since at that phase some parts of the moon reflect sunlight better than others.

The dazzling full moon sets behind the Very Large Telescope in Chile's Atacama Desert in this photo released June 7, 2010 by the European Southern Observatory. The moon appears larger than normal due to an optical illusion of perspective.

5) A 95-percent illuminated moon appears half as bright as a full moon

Believe it or not, the moon is half as bright as a full moon about 2.4 days before and after a full moon.  Even though about 95 percent of the moon is illuminated at this time, and to most casual observers it might still look like a "full" moon, its brightness is roughly 0.7 magnitudes less than at full phase, making it appear one-half as bright.

 

6) The Earth, seen from the moon, also goes through phases

However, they are opposite to the lunar phases that we see from the Earth. It's a full Earth when it's new moon for us; last-quarter Earth when we're seeing a first-quarter moon; a crescent Earth when we're seeing a gibbous moon, and when the Earth is at new phase we're seeing a full moon. 

From any spot on the moon (except on the far side, where you cannot see the Earth), the Earth would always be in the same place in the sky.

From the moon, our Earth appears nearly four times larger than a full moon appears to us, and – depending on the state of our atmosphere – shines anywhere from 45 to 100 times brighter than a full moon.  So when a full (or nearly full) Earth appears in the lunar sky, it illuminates the surrounding lunar landscape with a bluish-gray glow.  

From here on the Earth, we can see that glow when the moon appears to us as a crescent; sunlight illuminates but a sliver of the moon, while the rest of its outline is dimly visible by virtue of earthlight.  Leonardo da Vinci was the first to figure out what that eerie glow appearing on the moon really was.

7) Eclipses are reversed when viewing from the moon

Phases aren't the only things that are seen in reverse from the moon.  An eclipse of the moon for us is an eclipse of the sun from the moon.  In this case, the disk of the Earth appears to block out the sun. 

If it completely blocks the sun, a narrow ring of light surrounds the dark disk of the Earth; our atmosphere backlighted by the sun.  The ring appears to have a ruddy hue, since it's the combined light of all the sunrises and sunsets occurring at that particular moment.  That's why during a total lunar eclipse, the moon takes on a ruddy or coppery glow. 

When a total eclipse of the sun is taking place here on Earth, an observer on the moon can watch over the course of two or three hours as a small, distinct patch of darkness works its way slowly across the surface of the Earth.  It's the moon's dark shadow, called the umbra, that falls on the Earth, but unlike in a lunar eclipse, where the moon can be completely engulfed by the Earth's shadow, the moon's shadow is less than a couple of hundred miles wide when it touches the Earth, appearing only as a dark blotch.

8) There are rules for how the moon's craters are named

The lunar craters were formed by asteroids and comets that collided with the moon.  Roughly 300,000 craters wider than 1 km (0.6 miles) are thought to be on the moon's near side alone. 

These are named for scholars, scientists, artists and explorers.  For example, Copernicus Crater is named for Nicolaus Copernicus, a Polish astronomer who realized in the 1500s that the planets move about the sun. Archimedes Crater is named for the Greek mathematician Archimedes, who made many mathematical discoveries in the third century B.C.

The custom of applying personal names to the lunar formations began in 1645 with Michael van Langren, an engineer in Brussels who named the moon's principal features after kings and great people on the Earth.  On his lunar map he named the largest lunar plain (now known as Oceanus Procellarum) after his patron, Phillip IV of Spain. 

But just six years later, Giovanni Battista Riccioli of Bologna completed his own great lunar map, which removed the names bestowed by Van Langren and instead derived names chiefly from those of famous astronomers — the basis of the system which continues to this day.  In 1939, the British Astronomical Association issued a catalog of officially named lunar formations, "Who's Who on the Moon," listing the names of all formations adopted by the International Astronomical Union.

Today the IAU continues to decide the names for craters on our moon, along with names for all astronomical objects.  The IAU organizes the naming of each particular celestial feature around a particular theme. 

The names of craters now tend to fall into two groups. Typically, moon craters have been named for deceased scientists, scholars, explorers, and artists who've become known for their contributions to their respective fields.  The craters around the Apollo crater and the Mare Moscoviense are to be named after deceased American astronauts and Russian cosmonauts.

The best time to observe the moon this month is over the next few nights.

9) The moon encompasses a huge temperature range

If you survey the Internet for temperature data on the moon, you're going to run into quite a bit of confusion. There's little consistency even within a given website in which temperature scale is quoted: Celsius, Fahrenheit, even Kelvin. 

We have opted to use the figures that are quoted by NASA on its Website: The temperature at the lunar equator ranges from an extremely low minus 280 degrees F (minus 173 degrees C) at night to a very high 260 degrees F (127 degrees C) in the daytime. In some deep craters near the moon's poles, the temperature is always near minus 400 degrees F (minus 240 degrees C).

During a lunar eclipse, as the moon moves into the Earth's shadow, the surface temperature can plunge about 500 degrees F (300 degrees C) in less than 90 minutes.  

10) The moon has its own time zone

It is possible to tell time on the moon.  In fact, back in 1970, Helbros Watches asked Kenneth L. Franklin, who for many years was the chief astronomer at New York's Hayden Planetarium, to design a watch for moon walkers that measures time in what he called "lunations," the period it takes the moon to rotate and revolve around the Earth; each lunation is exactly 29.530589 Earth days.

For the moon, Franklin developed a system he called "lunar mean solar time," or Lunar Time (LT).   He envisioned local lunar time zones similar to the standard time zones of Earth, but based on meridians that are 12-degrees wide (analogous to the 15-degree intervals on Earth).  "They will be named unambiguously as '36-degree East Zone time,' etc., although 'Copernican time,' 'West Tranquillity time' and others may be adopted as convenient."   A lunar hour was defined as a "lunour," and decilunours, centilunours and millilunours were also introduced.  

Interestingly, one moon watch was sent to the president of the United States at the time, Richard M. Nixon, who sent a thank you note to Franklin. The note and another moon watch were kept in a display case at the Hayden Planetarium for several years. 

Quite a few visitors would openly wonder why Nixon was presented with a wristwatch that could be used only on the moon.     

Forty years have come and gone without the watch becoming a big seller. 

Joe Rao serves as an instructor and guest lecturer at New York's Hayden Planetarium. He writes about astronomy for The New York Times and other publications, and he is also an on-camera meteorologist for News 12 Westchester, N.Y.

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