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E-Commerce and It's Working

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E-Commerce:
Electronic commerce
, commonly known as e-commerce or eCommerce, is a type of industry where the buying and selling of products or services is conducted over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI),inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at one point in the transaction's life-cycle, although it may encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail, mobile devices, social media, and telephones as well.
Block Diagram Of E-Commerece :
enter image description here
Working Of E-Commerce:
Step 1:
A customer enters an order on a merchant's website. The transaction information is instantly encrypted and transmitted to the e-Commerce secure server, which is linked via a dedicated, leased data line to the credit card authorization network. A dedicated data line means faster transaction times.

Step 2: The transaction information is sent by the e-Commerce secure server via leased data line to the credit card authorization network where the validity of the card is checked and the availability of funds on that account is verified. An authorization code is returned via leased data line to the e-Commerce secure server. The authorization is encrypted by the e-Commerce server and transmitted in encrypted form back to the web server of the merchant which in turn triggers the fulfillment process of the order.

Step 3: An e-mail receipt is sent to the customer and the merchant (either or both can be disabled at merchant's option). Within 48 - 72 hours the merchant receives the money.

posted Mar 25 by Manish Tiwari

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NFC i.e. Near Field Communication as name suggest that it is the communication technology which works between two instrument who are only few inch away. NFC builds upon RFID systems by allowing two-way communication between endpoints, where earlier systems such as contactless smart cards were one-way only.

Its major use is in contact-less payment systems and can replace many payment system like smart card, credit card and smart ticket etc. Most of the smart phone in the market have the NFC support and hence it can replace the existing payment and sattlement system.

NFC Chip

Why NFC is not moving
There are two reason for NFC is growing slow, one is credit, debit, and identification cards are already a normal part of life and work well for most people. Smartcards are a directly competing technology, as they allow the same ease of use in some cases as the NFC-equipped phone. Should this technology in traditional cards see widespread acceptance, it may reduce the demand for similar, and more expensive, technology in the smartphone. Obviously, consumers are going to drive this market to a great extent. As mentioned in Weaknesses, most consumers do not have NFC-equipped phones, and even if some organizations adopt the technology, there may not be a market. Consumers must decide that the cost to purchase the phone, transfer data, and learn the new phone’s controls is worthwhile . If the infrastructure is not created because there are too few customers, customers will not purchase the device due to a lack of infrastructure. This could perpetually prevent adoption of the technology.

Consumers may also be leery of the security of the new technology: the more computerized the system, the more vulnerable it may be to malware and other attacks. These factors, in addition to the ordinary reluctance to change, may keep consumers from adopting the technology, making it useless to the service providers. Even if the technology is ultimately accepted, there is always the possibility of changing laws increasing its cost or otherwise making it more difficult to use. Since information about banking and finance would be exchanged through NFC, there will be legal requirements for its security and recordkeeping.

Comments are welcome....

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Where two bridges are used to interconnect the same two computer network segments, spanning tree is a protocol that allows the bridges to exchange information so that only one of them will handle a given message that is being sent between two computers within the network. The spanning tree protocol prevents the condition known as a bridge loop.

n a local area network (LAN) such as an Ethernet or token ring network, computers compete for the ability to use the shared telecommunications path at any given time. If too many computers try to send at the same time, the overall performance of the network can be affected, even to the point of bringing all traffic to a near halt. To make this possibility less likely, the local area network can be divided into two or more network segments with a device called a bridge connecting any two segments. Each message (called a frame) goes through the bridge before being sent to the intended destination. The bridge determines whether the message is for a destination within the same segment as the sender's or for the other segment, and forwards it accordingly. A bridge does nothing more than look at the destination address and, based on its understanding of the two segments (which computers are on which segments), forwards it on the right path (which means to the correct outgoing port). The benefit of network segmentation (and the bridge) is that the amount of competition for use of the network path is reduced by half (assuming each segment has the same number of computers) and the possibility of the network coming to a halt is significantly reduced.

Each bridge learns which computers are on which segment by sending any first-time message to both segments (this is known as flooding) and then noticing and recording the segment from which a computer replied to the message. Gradually, the bridge builds a picture for itself of which computers are in which segments. When a second and subsequent messages are sent, the bridge can use its table to determine which segment to forward it to. The approach of allowing the bridge to learn the network through experience is known as transparent bridging (meaning that bridging does not require setup by an administrator).

In order to build into a network, it is typical to add a second bridge between two segments as a backup in case the primary bridge fails. Both bridges need to continually understand the topography of the network, even though only one is actually forwarding messages. And both bridges need to have some way to understand which bridge is the primary one. To do this, they have a separate path connection just between the bridges in which they exchange information, using bridge protocol data units (BPDUs).

The program in each bridge that allows it to determine how to use the protocol is known as the spanning tree algorithm. The algorithm is specifically constructed to avoid bridge loops (multiple paths linking one segment to another, resulting in an infinite loop situation). The algorithm is responsible for a bridge using only the most efficient path when faced with multiple paths. If the best path fails, the algorithm recalculates the network and finds the next best route.

The spanning tree algorithm determines the network (which computer hosts are in which segment) and this data is exchanged using Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs). It is broken down into two steps:

Step 1: The algorithm determines the best message a bridge can send by evaluating the configuration messages it has received and choosing the best option.

Step 2: Once it selects the top message for a particular bridge to send, it compares its choice with possible configuration messages from the non-root-connections it has. If the best option from step 1 isn't better than what it receives from the non-root-connections, it will prune that port.

The spanning tree protocol and algorithm were developed by a committe of the IEEE. Currently, the IEEE is attempting to institute enhancements to the spanning tree algorithm that will reduce network recovery time. The goal is to go from 30 to 60 seconds after a failure or change in link status to less than 10 seconds. The enhancement, called Rapid Reconfiguration or Fast Spanning Tree, would cut down on data loss and session timeouts when large, Ethernet networks recover after a topology change or a device failure.

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RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
is a distance-vector routing protocol. It's been around for years and is no longer used very much. It's a protocol used by routing nodes to exchange network information. Each node that supports RIP advertises all the networks it knows about, typically every 30 seconds, using one or more broadcast packets. RIP can be used to route IP, IPX, and other protocols.

Routing tables are stored by each node supporting RIP. As advertisements from other RIP nodes are received, the routes to networks are added to the table. The route that gets stored is via the router that is closest, based on the number of hops away it is (the distance). It's simplest to think of a hop as another RIP router.

Routes can appear and disappear in a network as outages invariably happen. A RIP router will age out a route if it stops receiving advertisements for it from other RIP routers. This process can take several minutes, depending on the configuration, so RIP is not the most desirable routing protocol to use. High availability is not in it's vocabulary!

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The user interface - this includes the address bar, back/forward button, bookmarking menu etc.

The browser engine - the interface for querying and manipulating the rendering engine.

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JavaScript interpreter - Used to parse and execute the JavaScript code.

Data storage - This is a persistence layer. The browser needs to save all sorts of data on the hard disk, for examples, cookies.
The below figure shows the Block Diagram of Web browser components.

enter image description here

Web browser gets this information and formats into the display which we usually see when we visit a webpage. Because of inherent differences in browsers the displayed page might appear slightly different in different browsers.Web browsers communicate with Web servers primarily using HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol) to fetch webpages. HTTP allows Web browsers to submit information to Web servers as well as fetch Web pages from them.Web pages are located by means of a URL (uniform resource locator) which is treated as an address, beginning with http: for HTTP access. Many browsers also support a variety of other protocols, such as ftp: for FTP (file transfer protocol), rtsp: for RTSP (real-time streaming protocol- A protocol for use in streaming media systems), and https: for HTTPS (an SSL encrypted version of HTTP- used to indicate a secure HTTP connection).In addition to HTML, PHP and other languages, the Web browser also supports various image formats like JPEG, PNG and GIF. The combination of HTTP content type and URL protocol specification allows Web page designers to embed images, animations, video, sound, and streaming media into a Web page, or to make them accessible through the Web page.

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In this device, the information is stored as an array of floating gate transistors called cells. Each of these cells can store only one bit of information at a time. The design of each memory cell is somewhat similar to that of a MOSFET. The only difference is that this cell has two gates. The gate on top is called the control gate [CG], and the bottom one is called the floating gate [FG]. FG may be made of conductive materials like poly silicon or can also be non-conductive. These two gates are separated from each other by a thin oxide layer. To know the exact representation, take a look the figure given below.

enter image description here

The FG can come in contact with the word line only through CG. When that particular link is closed, the cell will have a value ’1′. In order to change the value to ’0′, a process called tunneling has to be done. This charge cancels the electric field from CG, and thus causes to modify the threshold voltage [V] of the cell.
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